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Plagiarism and Source Citation

  • Overview
  • Definition
  • Intellectual Property Rights
  • Types Plagiarism
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • MLA Handbook
  • MLA Handbook Cont...
  • Quiz

This Tutorial Will Allow You To:

  • Define plagiarism
  • Identify the types of plagiarism
  • Understand the concept of Intellectual Property Rights
  • Apply strategies to avoid plagiarism
  • Cite sources using the MLA style guide

What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarize:
1 take and use (the thoughts, writings, inventions, etc., of another person) as one’s own. 2 pass off the thoughts, etc., of (another person) as one's own.”

Plagiarism:
1. [Forgery] – Syn. Appropriation, literary theft, falsification, counterfeiting, piracy, fraud. 2. [Something forged] – Syn. Copy, fraud, counterfeit.”

Oklahoma City University defines plagiarism in the Academic Honesty Policy as “…the appropriation of another’s work and/or the unacknowledged incorporation of that work in one’s own” (41).

WARNING: Oklahoma City University uses Turnitin.com to detect plagiarism. Penalties for plagiarism may include receiving an F for the assignment, receiving an F for the class, expulsion from the program, or expulsion from the university.

Sources:
Oklahoma City University. Undergraduate Catalog. Oklahoma City:
     Oklahoma City University, 2009-2010. Print.

“Plagiarism.” Webster’s New World Thesaurus. 3rd ed. 1997. Print.

“Plagiarize.” Dorling Kindersley Illustrated Oxford Dictionary. Revised ed.
     2003. Print.

Intellectual Property Rights

Plagiarism is wrong not just because Academia says it is wrong, but because authors own their thoughts as much as they would any commercial product they were responsible for creating. They deserve to be credited for these ideas and thoughts in both monetary and non-monetary forms. This is referred to as intellectual property rights:

Buying a paper, however, is the same as buying a book or magazine. You own the physical copy of the book or magazine, which you may keep in your bookcase, give to a friend, or sell. And you may use whatever you learn from reading it in your own writing. But you are never free from the obligation to let your readers know the source of the ideas, facts, words, or sentences you borrow. Publications are a special kind of property. You can own them physically but the publisher or author retains rights to the content. (Modern Language Assn. of America 54)


Source:
Modern Language Association of America. MLA Handbook for Writers

     of Research Papers.
7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of

     America, 2009. Print.

Types of Plagiarism

  • Using another's work without giving credit
  • Using another's work word for word without using quotation marks, even if you give credit
  • Turning in another's work as your own
  • Using previous work for more than one assignment/course

Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism

  • Always cite your sources. The Ann Lacy School of American Dance and Arts Management supports using the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, which can be found in the Dulaney-Browne Library. There are several other style manuals available at the library, but you should always check with your professor to see which one to use for assignments. Style manuals lay out rules for citing sources within your paper and also show you how to prepare a list of works cited which is required for all research papers.
  • The MLA Handbook recommends that you always take notes while conducting research. “Presenting an author’s exact wording without marking it as a quotation is plagiarism, even if you cite the source. For this reason, recording only quotations is the most reliable method of note-taking in substantial research projects, especially for beginning students. It is the surest way, when you work with notes, to avoid unintentional plagiarism“ (Modern Language Assn. of America 55). When taking notes also make sure to keep a list of the sources you use (Modern Language Assn. of America 61).
  • Knowing when to cite a source. In general you should always cite a source if you incorporate someone else's knowledge or ideas into your work. A style guide can be helpful in determining how to cite the source.
Source:
Modern Language Association of America. MLA Handbook for Writers

     of Research Papers.
7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of

     America, 2009. Print.

Citing Sources

Chapter five of the MLA Handbook covers creating a works cited list:

...[T]here are often several options for recording key features of a work. For this reason, software programs that generate entries are not likely to be useful. You may need to improvise when the type of scholarly project or the publication medium of a source is not anticipated by this handbook. Be consistent in your formatting throughout your work. Choose the format that is appropriate to your research paper and that will satisfy your readers’ needs. (Modern Language Assn. of America 129)

The three most common sources you will cite in your papers will be journal articles, print books, and web pages. While taking notes you will obviously need to remember to record page numbers from all of these sources except web pages. These page numbers will be used in the parenthetical citations within the text of your paper, which are covered in chapter six of the MLA Handbook. In order to create your works cited list you will need to collect the following information:
  • Author or Editor
  • Title
  • Publisher
  • Publication Date (For web pages use last updated date)
  • Type of Publication e.g. print, web, microfiche, etc.
  • City of Publication (Books Only)
  • Edition (Books and Web Pages Only)
  • Journal Name (Journal Only)
  • Volume and Issue Number (Journal Only)
  • Page Numbers of Complete Article (Journal Only)
  • Web site Title (Web Page Only)
  • URL optional (Web Page Only)
  • Date of Access (Web Page Only) (Modern Language Assn. of America 136, 148, 184-185)
The items highlighted in yellow are the main types of information you will need to collect and are common to all three types of items you will cite.

Source:
Modern Language Association of America. MLA Handbook for Writers

     of Research Papers.
7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of

     America, 2009. Print.

Citing Sources (Examples):

Journal Article:

Author's Name. "Article Title: Sub-Title." Journal Title Volume. Issue

     (Publication Date): Page Numbers. Publication Type.

Shapiro, Lynn Colburn. "Going Inside the Role: How Acting can Deepen Your

     Artistry." Dance Magazine 83.6 (2009): 36-40. Print.

Same Article Accessed via one of the EBSCO Databases:

Author's Name. "Article Title: Sub-Title." Journal Title Volume. Issue

     (Publication Date): Page Numbers. Database Name. Publication Type.

     Date Accessed.

Shapiro, Lynn Colburn. "Going Inside the Role: How Acting can Deepen Your

     Artistry." Dance Magazine 83.6 (2009): 36-40. Academic Search

     Complete
. Web. 11 January 2010.

Book:

Author. Book Title: Sub-Title. Edition. Publication City: Publisher,

     Publication Date. Publication Type.

Spain, Louise. Dance on Camera: A Guide to Dance Films and Videos.

     Lanham: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1998. Print.

Web Page:

Author. Title. Web site Title. Publisher or Sponser, Publication Date.

     Web. Date Accessed. <URL>.

Simpson, Jane and Jennifer Delaney. Ballet in 1924. Ballet.co. Bruce Marriott

     P, 1999. Web. 11 January 2010. <http://www.ballet.co.uk/magazines/

     yr_99/apr99/year_1924.htm>.

Note: According to the MLA Handbook, URL's are long and can change often and they do not recommend their use in citations unless it is unlikely the reader would be able to find the page without it. (Modern Language Assn. of America 182). Always check with your professor to see if they require URL's for the particular assignment.

Source:
Modern Language Association of America. MLA Handbook for Writers

     of Research Papers.
7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of

     America, 2009. Print.

Quiz

Before you answer the questions, be sure to fill in your name and class information. When you have completed the quiz, you may print the page and turn it in to your professor.

First Name: Last Name:




  1. I can copy text directly from a web page to use in my paper without using quotation marks.
    True
    FalseThis statement is false. If you copy anything word-for-word, you must always use quotation marks and cite the source.Correct. Never copy text directly from any source without using quotation marks and citing your source.
  2. Which piece of information is optional when citing a web page?
    Publication Date
    Date Accessed
    URL
    AuthorCorrect, because URLs can change and sometimes be long and cumbersome, they are often mistyped. For these reasons the MLA style guide lists them as optional in the citation. However, you should always check with your professor to see what their preference is on citing online sources.The Author, Publication Date, and Date Accessed are all required pieces of inforamtion when citing an online source.


  3. Ownership of one’s own thoughts and ideas is?
    Copyright
    Intellectual Property Rights
    Plagiarism
    EntitlementCorrectCopyright refers to the laws that protect intellectual property rights, while plagiarism is one type of copyright violation. Entitlement is just a feeling someone might have that allows them to think it is ok to commit plagiarism or some other unethical act.


  4. Which is NOT a type of plagiarism?
    Turning in another’s work as your own
    Using previous assignments for other classes
    Using another's work word for word, using quotation marks, and giving credit to the author
    Using another’s work without giving creditCorrect, as long as you use quotation marks and give credit you are not committing plagiarism.The first, second, and fourth options are all types of plagiarism. You must always give credit to the original author and if you are quoting them word-for-word you must use quotation marks (even for your own work).


  5. Which Style Manual does the Ann Lacy School of Dance and Arts Management prefer?
    APA
    Chicago
    Turabian
    MLACorrect, the Dance school uses the MLA style guide, but you should always check with your professor to make sure you use the preferred style guide for the assignment.MLA is the style guide used by the Dance school. However, you should always check with your professor to see which style guide is preferred for the assignment.



Mark the following as either examples of plagiarism or properly cited information. Assume all papers have a works cited page with an entry for the source being used.
  1. Original Text: “Gelsey Kirkland’s best-selling autobiography, Dancing on My Grave, which she wrote with her husband, Greg Lawrence, churns up conflicting emotions in readers who saw her at her finest.”

    Text in Paper: Dancing on My Grave is an emotional autobiography written by Gelsey Kirkland and her husband, Greg Lawrence. The story leaves readers, who once saw Ms. Kirkland perform at her best, with conflicting emotions.
    Properly Cited
    PlagiarismCorrect, this text has been plagiarized. While this is a good example of paraphrasing they failed to give credit by citing the source.This is a good example of paraphrasing, but no credit was given to the original author and therefore it is plagiarized.


  2. Original Text: “When dancing, we were alter egos you might say. And we were one. We danced with that same wonderful relationship we shared as brother and sister.”

    Text in Paper: “When dancing, we were alter egos you might say. And we were one. We danced with that same wonderful relationship we shared as brother and sister” (Frank 141).
    Properly Cited
    PlagiarismCorrect, this piece has been properly cited.This is properly cited. The use of quotation marks indicates the use of a word-for-word quotation of the original author. Parenthetical citations were used to give credit to the original author as well.


  3. Original Text: “Robbins later recalled the excitement of working with Balanchine, who could demonstrate to inimitable perfection the stances and deeds of his hero. However, the ballet itself proved to be a nonstop obstacle course, in which Jerry spent as much time rushing offstage and changing costumes and masks as performing.”

    Text in Paper: Robbins later called to mind the exhilaration of working with Balanchine, who could exhibit to unmatched perfection the stances and deeds of his idol. However, the ballet itself proved to be a frenzied obstacle course, in which Jerry spent as much time hurrying offstage to change as performing (Jowitt 203).
    Properly Cited
    PlagiarismCorrect, this piece is plagiarized. While it walks the line of paraphrasing only a couple of key words have been changed to synonyms and it is very close to having been word-for-word. If you are unable to completely rephrase a work you should stick with a word-for-word quotation and use quotation marks.This one is tricky. The original author is given credit, but onlya few words are changed. This is not a true paraphrase and without quotation marks, full credit was not given to the original author.


Please answer the following questions honestly, so that we can improve this module.
  1. Is this your first time completing this module?
    Yes
    No

  2. What was most/least helpful about this online session?


  3. Do you have a better understanding of plagiarism than you did before this online session?
    No, not at all 1 2 3 4 5 Yes, much better


  4. Overall, how useful was this online session?
    Not Useful 1 2 3 4 5 Extremely Useful




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