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Plagiarism and Source Citation

  • Overview
  • Definition
  • Intellectual Property Rights
  • Types of Plagiarism
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Turabian Handbook
  • Turabian Handbook Cont...
  • Quiz

This Tutorial Will Allow You To:

  • Define plagiarism
  • Identify the types of plagiarism
  • Understand the concept of Intellectual Property Rights
  • Apply strategies to avoid plagiarism
  • Cite sources using the Kate L. Turabian/Chicago style guide

What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarize:
1 take and use (the thoughts, writings, inventions, etc., of another person) as one’s own. 2 pass off the thoughts, etc., of (another person) as one's own.”

Plagiarism:
1. [Forgery] – Syn. Appropriation, literary theft, falsification, counterfeiting, piracy, fraud. 2. [Something forged] – Syn. Copy, fraud, counterfeit.”

Oklahoma City University defines plagiarism in the Academic Honesty Policy as “…the appropriation of another’s work and/or the unacknowledged incorporation of that work in one’s own” (41).

WARNING: Oklahoma City University uses Turnitin.com to detect plagiarism. Penalties for plagiarism may include receiving an F for the assignment, receiving an F for the class, expulsion from the program, or expulsion from the university.

Sources:
Oklahoma City University. 2009-2010. Undergraduate catalog. Oklahoma City:
     Oklahoma City University.

Laird, Charlton and Micahael Agnes, eds. Plagiarism In Webster’s new world thesaurus. 3rd ed.
     New York: Macmillan USA.

Plagiarize In Dorling Kindersley illustrated oxford dictionary. Revised ed.
     2003. New York: Oxford University Press.

Intellectual Property Rights

Plagiarism is wrong not just because Academia says it is wrong, but because authors own their thoughts as much as they would any commercial product they were responsible for creating. They deserve to be credited for these ideas and thoughts in both monetary and non-monetary forms. This is referred to as intellectual property rights:

Buying a paper, however, is the same as buying a book or magazine. You own the physical copy of the book or magazine, which you may keep in your bookcase, give to a friend, or sell. And you may use whatever you learn from reading it in your own writing. But you are never free from the obligation to let your readers know the source of the ideas, facts, words, or sentences you borrow. Publications are a special kind of property. You can own them physically but the publisher or author retains rights to the content. (Modern Language Assn. of America 2009, 54)


"Your first obligation as a researcher is to cite your sources accurately and fully so that your readers can find them" (Turabian 2007, 27). This allows readers to trust your evidence and therefore your research (Turabian 2007, 27).

Sources:
Modern Language Association of America. 2009. MLA handbook for writers of research papers. 7th ed.
     New York: Modern Language Association of America.

Turabian, Kate L. 2007. A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations: Chicago style for
     students and researchers.
7th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Types of Plagiarism

  • Using another's work without giving credit
  • Using another's work word for word without using quotation marks, even if you give credit
  • Turning in another's work as your own
  • Using previous work for more than one assignment/course

Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism

  • Always cite your sources. Many departments/schools at OCU support using the The Turabian Style Guide, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, which can be found in the Dulaney-Browne Library. There are several other style manuals available at the library, but you should always check with your professor to see which one to use for assignments. Style manuals lay out rules for citing sources within your paper and show you how to prepare a list of works cited which is required for all research papers.
  • The Turabian style guide recommends taking careful notes to indicate whether something is a direct quote or a paraphrase and always indicate whether the information came from a source or was your own idea. Instead of depending on your notes for quotations, photocopy or download the direct quote and write all information needed for citing the source at the top of the page. Finally do not assume that free and publicly avaialbe information on the Internet does not have to be cited. "Nothing releases you from the duty to acknowledge your use of anything you did not personally create yourself" (Turabian 2007, 42).
  • Know when to cite a source. In general you should always cite a source if you incorporate someone else's knowledge or ideas into your work. A style guide can be helpful in determining how to cite the source.
Source:
Turabian, Kate L. 2007. A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations: Chicago style for
     students and researchers.
7th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Citing Sources

Part two of the Style Guide covers creating bibliographies and reference lists. Chapters 18 and 19 cover parenthetical citations/reference list style:

You may be asked to use different styles in different settings (for example, an art history course and a political science course). Within a specific paper, however, always follow a single style consistently. (Turabian 2007, 136)

...[C]itation and bibliographic management software varies widely in quality and might not reflect the small changes in citation styles that occur over time (for example, the addition of different electronic sources). If you use such software, you should always review the resulting citations for accuracy and completeness. (Turabian 2007, 140)

The three most common sources you will cite in your papers will be journal articles, print books, and web pages. While taking notes you will obviously need to remember to record page numbers from all of these sources except web pages. These page numbers will be used in the parenthetical citations within the text of your paper, which are covered in chapters 18 and 19 of the Style Guide. In order to create your reference list you will need to collect the following information:
  • Author or Editor
  • Title
  • Publication Date (For web pages use last updated date)
  • Page Numbers (For journals, page range for complete article)
  • Publishers (Books Only)
  • City of Publication (Books Only)
  • Edition (Books Only)
  • Journal Name (Journals Only)
  • Volume and Issue Number (Journals Only)
  • Web site Title (Web Pages Only)
  • URL (Web Pages and Online Articles Only)
  • Date of Access (Web Pages Only) (Turabian 2007, 227-280)
The items highlighted in yellow are the main types of information you will need to collect and are common to all three types of items you will cite.

Source:
Turabian, Kate L. 2007. A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations: Chicago style for
     students and researchers.
7th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Citing Sources (Examples):

Journal Article:

Author's Name. Publication Date. Article title: Sub-title. Journal Title. Volume,
     no. Issue or (Month): Page Numbers.

Maurel, Sylvie. 2009. The other stage: From Jane Eyre to Wide Sargasso Sea.
     Bronte Studies. 34, no.2: 155-161.

Note:Only the first word of titles and Sub-titles are capitalized. However proper nouns and adjectives are also capitalized within titles.

Articles Published Online or in a Database such as EBSCOhost:

Author's Name. Publication Date. Article title: Sub-Title. Journal Title. Volume,
     no. Issue or (Month): Page Numbers. URL (accessed date accessed).

Maurel, Sylvie. 2009. The other stage: From Jane Eyre to wide sargasso sea.
     Bronte Studies. 34, no.2: 155-161. http://search.ebscohost.com/
     login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=41341157&site=ehost-live
     (accessed November 15, 2012).

Book:

Author. Publication Date. Book title: Sub-Title. Edition. Publication City: Publisher.

Spain, Louise. 1998. Dance on camera: A guide to dance films and videos.
     Lanham: Scarecrow Press, Inc.

Web Page:

Author. Web page title. Title or owner of site. URL (accessed date accessed).

Jokinenon, Anniina. Thomas Dekker: Essays and articles. Anniina Jokinenon.
     http://www.luminarium.org/sevenlit/dekker/dekkeressay.htm
     (accessed April, 19, 2011).

Note: Even if you can determine few or no facts of publication, you must still include information beyond the URL in your reference list. If you cite only a URL and that URL changes or becomes obsolete, your citation becomes useless to readers. (Turabian 2007, 263)


Source:
Turabian, Kate L. 2007. A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations: Chicago style for
     students and researchers.
7th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Quiz

Before you answer the questions, be sure to fill in your name and class information. When you have completed the quiz, you may print the page and turn it in to your professor.

First Name: Last Name:





  1. I can copy text directly from a web page to use in my paper without using quotation marks.
    True
    FalseCorrect. Never copy text directly from any source without using quotation marks and citing your source.This statement is false. If you copy anything word-for-word, you must always use quotation marks and cite the source.

  2. Which piece of information is not required when citing a web page?
    Publication Date
    Date Accessed
    Publisher
    URLCorrect, A publisher is only required when citing print material like a book.The URL, Publication Date, and Date Accessed are all required pieces of inforamtion when citing an online source.

  3. Ownership of one’s own thoughts and ideas is callec what?
    Copyright
    Intellectual Property Rights
    Plagiarism
    EntitlementCorrectCopyright refers to the laws that protect intellectual property rights, while plagiarism is one type of copyright violation. Entitlement is just a feeling someone might have that allows them to think it is ok to commit plagarism or some other unethical act.

  4. Which is NOT a type of plagiarism?
    Turning in another’s work as your own
    Using previous assignments for other classes
    Using another's work word for word, using quotation marks, and giving credit to the author
    Using another’s work without giving creditCorrect, as long as you use quotation marks and give credit you are not committing plagiarism.The first, second, and fourth options are all types of plagarism. You must always give credit to the ariginal author and if you are quoting them word-for-word you must use quotation marks.

  5. Which citation style does your professor prefer?
    APA
    Turabian
    MLACorrect, but you should always check with your professor to make sure that is the style guide he/she wants you to use for the assignment.APA and MLA are style guide used by many departments at OCU. However, you should always check with your professor to see which style guide you should be using on your assignment.

Mark the following as either examples of plagiarism or properly cited information. Assume all papers have a works cited page with an entry for the source being used.
  1. Original Text: “Gelsey Kirkland’s best-selling autobiography, Dancing on My Grave, which she wrote with her husband, Greg Lawrence, churns up conflicting emotions in readers who saw her at her finest.”

    Text in Paper: Dancing on My Grave is an emotional autobiography written by Gelsey Kirkland and her husband, Greg Lawrence. The story leaves readers, who once saw Ms. Kirkland perform at her best, with conflicting emotions.
    Properly Cited
    PlagiarismCorrect, this text has been plagiarized. While this is a good example of paraphrasing they failed to give credit by citing the source.This is a good example of paraphrasing, but no credit was given to the original author and therefore it is plagarized.

  2. Original Text: “The theatres were defended by the humanists, the Queen, the Court, the Privy Council, and the playwrights themselves, and the attack died down; but it flared up again in the 17th century, culminating in the denunciations of Prynne and the closing of the theatres in 1642.”

    Text in Paper: "The theatres were defended by the humanists, the Queen, the Court, the Privy Council, and the playwrights themselves, and the attack died down; but it flared up again in the 17th century, culminating in the denunciations of Prynne and the closing of the theatres in 1642” (Halliday 518).
    Properly Cited
    PlagiarismCorrect, this piece has been properly cited.This is properly cited. The use of quotation marks indicates the use of a word-for-word quotation of the original author. Parenthetical citaitons were used to give credit to the original author as well.

  3. Original Text: “For adults, the yearning for paradise is the yearning of yearnings. Not the yearning of fulfillment, but the yearning to be without yearning.”

    Text in Paper: For grown-ups, the desire for paradise is the longing of yearnings. Not the thirst of achievement, but the yen to be without craving (Bullock and Jennings 265).
    Properly Cited
    PlagiarismCorrect, this piece is plagairized. While it walks the line of paraphrasing only a couple of key words have been changed to synonymns and it is very close to having been word-for-word. If you are unable to completely rephrase a work you should stick with a word-for-word quotation and use quotation marks.This one is tricky. The original author is given credit, but onlya few words are changed. This is not a true paraphrase and without quotation marks, full credit was not given to the original author.

Please answer the following questions honestly, so that we can improve this module.
  1. Is this your first time completing this module?
    Yes
    No

  2. What was most/least helpful about this online session?


  3. Do you have a better understanding of plagiarism than you did before this online session?
    No, not at all 1 2 3 4 5 Yes, much better

  4. Overall, how useful was this online session?
    Not Useful 1 2 3 4 5 Extremely Useful



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