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Plagiarism and Source Citation

  • Overview
  • Definition
  • Intellectual Property Rights
  • Types Plagiarism
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • APA Style Manual
  • APA Style Manual Cont...
  • Quiz

This Tutorial Will Allow You To:

  • Define plagiarism
  • Identify the types of plagiarism
  • Understand the concept of Intellectual Property Rights
  • Apply strategies to avoid plagiarism
  • Cite sources using the APA style guide

What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarize: (1997)
1 take and use (the thoughts, writings, inventions, etc., of another person) as one’s own. 2 pass off the thoughts, etc., of (another person) as one's own.”

Plagiarism: (2003)
1. [Forgery] – Syn. Appropriation, literary theft, falsification, counterfeiting, piracy, fraud. 2. [Something forged] – Syn. Copy, fraud, counterfeit.”

Oklahoma City University defines plagiarism in the Academic Honesty Policy as “…the appropriation of another’s work and/or the unacknowledged incorporation of that work in one’s own” (Oklahoma City University 2009-2010).

WARNING: Oklahoma City University uses Turnitin.com to detect plagiarism. Penalties for plagiarism may include receiving an F for the assignment, receiving an F for the class, expulsion from the program, or expulsion from the university.

Sources:

Oklahoma City University. (2009-2010) Undergraduate Catalog.

     Oklahoma City, OK: Author.

Plagiarism. (1997). In Charlton Laird (ed.), Webster’s New World Thesaurus

     (3rd ed., pp. 592). New York, NY: Macmillan USA.

Plagiarize. (2003). In Dorling Kindersley Illustrated Oxford Dictionary.

     (Rev. ed., pp. 622). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Intellectual Property Rights

Plagiarism is wrong not just because Academia says it is wrong, but because authors own their thoughts as much as they would any commercial product they were responsible for creating. They deserve to be credited for these ideas and thoughts in both monetary and non-monetary forms. This is referred to as intellectual property rights:

“Buying a paper, however, is the same as buying a book or magazine. You own the physical copy of the book or magazine, which you may keep in your bookcase, give to a friend, or sell. And you may use whatever you learn from reading it in your own writing. But you are never free from the obligation to let your readers know the source of the ideas, facts, words, or sentences you borrow. Publications are a special kind of property. You can own them physically but the publisher or author retains rights to the content” (Modern Language Assn. of America 2009).


Source:

Modern Lanuguage Association of America. (2009). MLA Handbook for

     Writers of Research Papers
(7th ed.). New York, NY: Author.

Types of Plagiarism

  • Using another's work without giving credit
  • Using another's work word for word without using quotation marks, even if you give credit
  • Turning in another's work as your own
  • Using previous work for more than one assignment/course

Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism

  • Always cite your sources. Many schools here at OCU support using the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA Style Guide), which can be found in the Dulaney-Browne Library. There are several other style manuals available at the library, but you should always check with your professor to see which one to use for assignments. Style manuals lay out rules for citing sources within your paper and show you how to prepare a reference list which is required for all research papers.
  • The MLA Handbook recommends that you always take notes while conducting research. “Presenting an author’s exact wording without marking it as a quotation is plagiarism, even if you cite the source. For this reason, recording only quotations is the most reliable method of note-taking in substantial research projects, especially for beginning students. It is the surest way, when you work with notes, to avoid unintentional plagiarism“ (Modern Language Assn. of America 2009). When taking notes also make sure to keep a list of the sources you use (Modern Language Assn. of America 2009).
  • Knowing when to cite a source. In general you should always cite a source if you incorporate someone else's knowledge or ideas into your work. A style guide can be helpful in determining how to cite the source.
Source:

Modern Lanuguage Association of America. (2009). MLA Handbook for

     Writers of Research Papers
(7th ed.). New York, NY: Author.

Citing Sources

Chapters six & seven of the APA Style Manual cover creating a reference list:

"Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work. They may provide key background information, support or dispute your thesis, or offer ciritcal definitions and data. Citation of an article implies that you have personally read the cited work. In addition to crediting the ideas of others that you used to build your thesis, provide documentation for all facts and figures that are not common knowledge” (American Psychological Association, 2010).

The three most common sources you will cite in your papers will be journal articles, print books, and web pages. While taking notes you will obviously need to remember to record page numbers from all of these sources except web pages. For webpages you will use paragraph numbers or section or paragraph titles. These numbers and titles will be used in the parenthetical citations within the text of your paper, which is covered in chapter seven of the Publications Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA Style Manual). In order to create your works cited list you will need to collect the following information:
  • Author or Editor
  • Title (Article or Chapter Title)
  • Publisher
  • Publication Date (For no date use n.d. in parenthesis and for unpublished items give the date the work was produced.)
  • Type of Publication e.g. print, web, microfiche, etc.
  • City of Publication (Books Only)
  • Edition (Books and Web Only)
  • Journal Name (Journal Only)
  • Volume and Issue Number (Journal Only)
  • Page Numbers of Complete Article (Journal Only)
  • Digital Object Identifier or DOI (Web Only, if it exists this is the only extra piece of information you need)
  • URL optional (Web Only)
The items highlighted in yellow are the main types of information you will need to collect and are common to all three types of items you will cite.

Source:

American Psychological Association. (2010). Crediting Sources. Publication

     Manual of the American Psychological Association
(6th ed.).

     Washington, D.C.: Author.

Citing Sources (Examples):

Journal Article:

Author, A. A. (year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume(Issue). pp-pp.

Moore, R., Brooks, C., & Cotner, S. (2011). The Relation of high school biology courses & students'

    religious beliefs to college students' knowledge of evolution. American Biology Teacher, 73(4).

    222-226.

Same Article Accessed via one of the EBSCO Databases:

Author, A. A. (year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume(Issue). pp-pp. doi: xx.xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Moore, R., Brooks, C., & Cotner, S. (2011). The Relation of high school biology courses & students'

    religious beliefs to college students' knowledge of evolution. American Biology Teacher, 73(4).

    222-226. doi: 10.1525/abt.2011.73.4.7

If there is no doi then cite the article as if it were found in print.

Book:

Author, A. A. (year). Book Title: Sub-Title (6th ed.). Location: Publisher.

Pippin, R. B. (2010). Nietzsche, Psychology, and First Philosphy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Electronic Version of Book:

Author, A. A. (year). Book Title: Sub-Title (6th ed.). Location: Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Evjen, B. (2008). Professional ASP.NET 3.5 in C and VB. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Pub.

      Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/dulaneybrowne/Doc?id=10296660

The latest version of the APA Style Manual does not give an example for citing a simple web page. One might take this to indicate that web pages should not be cited in academic works. If you need to use a web page as a reference consult your professor to see how he/she would like you to cite the source. They may want you to use the previous version of the style guide or use the example given for Internet message boards and electronic mailing lists that start at the bottom of page 214 of the style guide.

Online Forum/Mailing List:

Author/Screen name. (Date of posting). Re: Subject Line of Message [type of online source]. Retrieved

     from URL

Fried, I. (2011, April 18). Apple Files Patent Suit Against Samsung Over Galaxy Line of Phones and

     Tablets. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://mobilized.allthingsd.com/20110418/

    apple-files-patent-suit-against-samsung-over-galaxy-line-of-phones-and-tablets/

Source:

American Psychological Association. (2010). Crediting Sources. Publication Manual of the

     American Psychological Association
(6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.

Quiz

Before you answer the questions, be sure to fill in your name and class information. When you have completed the quiz, you may print the page and turn it in to your professor.

First Name: Last Name:





  1. I can copy text directly from a web page to use in my paper without using quotation marks.
    True
    FalseCorrect. Never copy text directly from any source without using quotation marks and citing your source.This statement is false. If you copy anything word-for-word, you must always use quotation marks and cite the source.

  2. Which piece of information is required only when citing an online article?
    Publication Date
    Title
    DOI
    AuthorCorrect, DOI stands for digital object identifier and is the only extra piece of information required when citing a web page or electronic source. When the DOI is unavailable cite the article as if it were print.The Author, Publication Date, and Title are all required pieces of inforamtion when citing an online source.

  3. Ownership of one’s own thoughts and ideas is?
    Copyright
    Intellectual Property Rights
    Plagiarism
    EntitlementCorrectCopyright refers to the laws that protect intellectual property rights, while plagiarism is one type of copyright violation. Entitlement is just a feeling someone might have that allows them to think it is ok to commit plagarism or some other unethical act.

  4. Which is NOT a type of plagiarism?
    Turning in another’s work as your own
    Using previous assignments for other classes
    Using other's work word-for-word, using quotation marks, and giving credit to the author
    Using other’s work without giving creditCorrect, as long as you use quotation marks and give credit you are not committing plagiarism.The first, second, and fourth options are all types of plagarism. You must always give credit to the ariginal author and if you are quoting them word-for-word you must use quotation marks.

  5. Which Style Manual does your professor prefer?
    MLA
    Chicago
    Turabian
    APACorrect, but you should always check with your professor to make sure that is the style guide he/she wants you to use for the assignment.APA is the style guide used by behavioral and scoial sciences. However, you should always check with your professor to see which style guide you should be using on your assignment.

Mark the following as either examples of plagiarism or properly cited information. Assume all papers have a works cited page with an entry for the source being used.
  1. Original Text: “Good nutrition is essential for optimal health and disease prevention. Educating a child early in life about the importance of healthy eating habits can play a role in safeguarding the child against future disease.”

    Text in Paper: Great significance should be placed on educating children about eating healthy because good nutrition habits can prevent disease and promote the best possible health.
    Properly Cited
    PlagiarismCorrect, this text has been plagiarized. While this is a good example of paraphrasing they failed to give credit by citing the source.This is a good example of paraphrasing, but no credit was given to the original author and therefore it is plagarized.

  2. Original Text: “We Africans feel deeply the anguish of our situations. On the one hand, we feel that there is a divine permit to hamstring the horses and burn the chariots. On the other hand, we are confronted with the gospel of Jesus Christ, who deliberately chose nonviolent evangelization.”

    Text in Paper: “We Africans feel deeply the anguish of our situations. On the one hand, we feel that there is a divine permit to hamstring the horses and burn the chariots. On the other hand, we are confronted with the gospel of Jesus Christ, who deliberately chose nonviolent evangelization.” (Rhoads, 2005).
    Properly Cited
    PlagiarismCorrect, this piece has been properly cited.This is properly cited. The use of quotation marks indicates the use of a word-for-word quotation of the original author. Parenthetical citaitons were used to give credit to the original author as well.

  3. Original Text: “Select the mode of presentation that optimizes understanding of the data by the reader. Detailed displays that allow fine-grained understanding of a data set may be more appropriate to include in online supplemental archives than in the print version of an article.”

    Text in Paper: Choose the mode of presentation that increases the understanding of the information by the reader. Thorough displays that allow detailed understanding of a data set may be more suitable to incorporate in electronic supplemental archives than in the print version of an article. (American Psychological Association, 2010).
    Properly Cited
    PlagiarismCorrect, this piece is plagairized. While it walks the line of paraphrasing only a couple of key words have been changed to synonymns and it is very close to having been word-for-word. If you are unable to completely rephrase a work you should stick with a word-for-word quotation and use quotation marks.This one is tricky. The original author is given credit, but onlya few words are changed. This is not a true paraphrase and without quotation marks, full credit was not given to the original author.

Please answer the following questions honestly, so that we can improve this module.
  1. Is this your first time completing this module?
    Yes
    No

  2. What was most/least helpful about this online session?

  3. Do you have a better understanding of plagiarism than you did before this online session?
    No, not at all 1 2 3 4 5 Yes, much better

  4. Overall, how useful was this online session?
    Not Useful 1 2 3 4 5 Extremely Useful




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